Tooth decay is the destruction of the enamel, which is the hard tissue of the tooth, the dentin under it, and sometimes the hard tissue covering the root surface. Generally, carbohydrate foods (sugar, starch, etc.), cola and similar sugary carbonated drinks, cake, chocolate, etc. It occurs especially when sticky foods stay on the tooth surface for a long time. Bacteria in the mouth are fed with these food residues and acid is produced with the help of these microorganisms. After a while, this acidic environment causes destruction in the hard tissues of the tooth and creates dental caries.

Bacterial plaque consisting of bacteria in the mouth can form acid from the residues of sugary and floury foods in the mouth. These acids dissolve the mineral tissue of the teeth, causing the enamel of the teeth to deteriorate, resulting in the onset of dental caries and cavities that dentists call cavities.

<strong>Who Gets More Bruises?</strong>

Since cavities occur as a result of the meeting of bacteria with sugary and floury foods, there is a danger for everyone. However, those who have high carbohydrate and sugary foods in their diets and those who have a very low fluoride content in their water are at a much higher risk of caries. Although saliva creates a natural defense mechanism against the acid created by the bacterial plaque, it cannot prevent caries on its own. Diseases or drugs that reduce the flow and amount of saliva also accelerate the formation of caries.

<strong>Can Tooth Decay Be Prevented?</strong>

<li>Brushing the teeth after breakfast and before going to bed in the evening and using dental floss regularly every day is the most effective way. Appropriate toothbrush should be chosen, as food residues accumulate mostly in the recesses of the chewing surfaces of the teeth and the interfaces where the teeth touch each other</li>
<li>Trying to consume sugary foods at main meals and trying not to eat anything between meals is another precaution.</li>
<li>Performing dental check-ups at regular intervals is the best way to catch caries in the early period.</li>

<strong>Importance of Milk Teeth:</strong>

The teeth in the mouth are divided into two groups as primary and permanent teeth. There are 20 milk teeth in total and 32 permanent teeth. There is a misconception in society that milk teeth are sometimes unnecessary. The main reason for the formation of this false belief is that the primary teeth will fall out and will be replaced by permanent teeth. However, milk teeth also undertake many tasks during the time they are in the mouth. The period when milk teeth are in the mouth coincides with the most active period of growth and development in childhood. Milk teeth, which form the first step of the digestive system with their cutting and grinding functions, affect nutrition and accordingly growth and development. In other words, they have natural placeholder functions.

<strong>Deciduous Tooth Traumas:</strong>Deciduous tooth traumas are often seen in the preschool period, especially because young children have difficulty in maintaining their balance. Studies show that the incidence varies between 11% and 30%. It has been reported that the large differences in these rates are due to the low rate of consulting a physician. Its incidence increases in direct proportion to the increase in physical activity at 1-3 years of age. Boys are more affected. It has been determined that the incidence of trauma in permanent teeth is 22% and it is frequently seen between the ages of 8 and 11 years.

<strong>Deciduous Tooth Trauma Treatments:</strong> The time of occurrence of the event affects the amount of tooth impact and the treatment plan. The location of the event is important for tetanus prophylaxis. Regardless of the type and size of the trauma, if there is loss of consciousness, bleeding, loss of balance, headache, vomiting, nausea, speech difficulties, etc., in order to protect from possible harm of dental traumas. If you do not have a general health problem, such as

<strong>What Should Be Done to Protect From Deciduous Tooth Trauma:</strong> The first duty of families and people who take care of children is to be prepared for dental traumas. This preparation includes knowing what to do in emergency situations and determining the physician to be reached. In addition, children should be provided with mouth protection apparatus and helmet while doing sports, belts and seats in the car, and environments where they will not fall at home. The time elapsed between trauma and referral to the dentist is the first factor affecting the success of the treatment. If the tooth is broken and the broken piece can be found, it is necessary to apply to the dentist as soon as possible (within the first 1 hour) by putting the broken piece in a milk immediately.

<strong>Tooth abrasions:</strong>

Our teeth are exposed to many chemical and physical factors throughout life. As a result, tooth decay, trauma and wear may occur. Tooth abrasions are abrasion, attrition, abfraction and erosion.

Attrition is defined as the physiological wear that occurs in the areas where the teeth are in contact, in functional or non-functional movements, without any substance in between.

Abrasion is tooth wear that occurs as a result of the contact of foreign bodies with the teeth in the mouth.

Abfractions are wedge-shaped lesions caused by tensile forces created by non-centric occlusal forces in the neck region.

Erosion is defined as the loss of tooth tissue caused by acids entering the mouth without physical or microbial effects.

<strong>Gum Diseases</strong> (Periodontal Diseases):</strong>

Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases that affect the gums and other tissues that support the teeth. Periodontal diseases are responsible for 70% of tooth loss in adults. These diseases can be treated easily and successfully when diagnosed at an early stage.

Periodontal diseases begin with gingivitis. In other words, gingivitis is the early period of periodontal disease. During this period, the gums are bleeding, red and enlarged in volume. It may not cause much discomfort in the early period. If left untreated, the disease may progress to periodontitis and cause irreversible damage to the gingiva and jawbone that supports the teeth.

Periodontitis is a more advanced stage of periodontal diseases. Damage occurs in the jawbone along with other tissues that support the teeth. As the disease progresses, the teeth begin to shake and may even go into extraction.

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